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Elizabeth I, Queen of England. Mary, Queen of Scots. William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley. Charles IX, King of France. James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton. Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester. Edward VI, King of England. James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell. Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk. James V, King of Scots. William Maitland of Lethington.
Mary of Guise, Queen Regent of Scotland. Mary I, Queen of England. Although King Henry VIII of the Tudor dynasty had an illegitimate son, he needed an heir from a queen to properly continue the dynasty. His first child to survive was, Mary , born to Catherine of Aragon , Henry's first wife. After it was clear that Catherine could give him no more children, he ended his marriage, which provoked the English Reformation. Henry married the already pregnant Anne Boleyn , who gave birth to Elizabeth on September 7, At the age of two she became motherless as the accusations of adultery, which were drummed up by Henry, sent her mother to the guillotine.
She had a younger brother, Edward by Henry's third wife, Jane Seymour, and who would follow his father as king. With two older siblings, no one at the time expected Elizabeth to matter much. Still, being the daughter of a king, Elizabeth had educational opportunities that were not available for most women of her age. At the hands of private tutors, she learned six languages: French, Spanish, Greek, Italian, Latin and Flemish along with her native English, studied theology, astronomy, physics, and other subjects in which she performed remarkably.
In an attempt to dethrone Mary, Protestants led by Thomas Wyatt started a rebellion. Mary insisted that her sister was active in the uprising and had her imprisoned in the Tower of London.
After a few treacherous months she was released and sent away to an estate under the constant watch of her sister. However, Elizabeth never gave in to her sister's demand of converting to Roman Catholicism. In , Mary died and Elizabeth became queen. Faced with a country that was reeling from religious differences, Elizabeth once again made the Church of England the official religion, although retaining some Roman Catholic traditions in the church by issuing the 39 Articles of , which was designed to prevent the country from further turmoil.
Her tolerance of Roman Catholicism would wane in her later years as assassination plots were uncovered that originated in at the hands of Roman Catholics that sought to reestablish a Roman Catholic queen. Pope Pius V excommunicated her in in hope of an uprising that would allow a Roman Catholic to once again restore the faith to England. The figure in the conspiracies that was to take Elizabeth's position as monarch was Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots.chonportsignheldsi.gq/zefan-phone-tracker-for.php
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After the suspicious death of her second husband, Lord Darnley, in , Mary, along with the Earl of Bothwell whom she had grown very close to had been accused of assassinating the King. She was forced to leave Scotland and sought the protection of Elizabeth in England. During a nearly twenty-year stay, the former Queen of Scots was more than once suspected of conspiring to overthrow Elizabeth and become Queen of England, but Elizabeth long refused to have her executed. Only after her role in the Babington Plot was uncovered did Elizabeth allow her execution in In Parliament, Elizabeth ruled through her Privy Council.
They were her council in times of decision and had influence over the queen. Throughout her reign, Elizabeth was pressured to marry by Parliament in hope of producing an heir to the crown. Although she never married, Elizabeth received proposals from many prominent men in Europe. Throughout her life she defended her virginity, but rumors circulated that she was in love with Robert Dudley, the Earl of Leicester. After the suspicious death of his wife, Amy, Elizabeth was accused of plotting to kill her in order to be with her childhood love.
The two never married, although Leicester would wed her cousin several years after the death of his wife. In , Spain attempted to invade England, partially prompted by the execution of Mary Stuart. During their invasion, the grand armada engaged the Royal Navy.
Mary, Queen of Scots: In Fact and Fiction
After bad weather and a series of defeats, the armada was repulsed and England emerged as the prominent naval force in the world. England also expanded its commerce and companies like the British East India Company were established to enhance trade. On March 24, , Elizabeth died.
There were a few new things I learned but the majority I already knew from other books I have read. Jul 26, Lou rated it it was amazing Shelves: tudors , so-good , non-fiction. This was brilliant. Mar 31, C. Burrough rated it really liked it Recommends it for: Anyone. It is near impossible, after reading material such as this, to side with one queen or the other. Each was arguably at fault and justified in her treatment of the other. Mary came off the worst to lioness Bess. The backstory is that the teenaged Mary, when queen consort of France, had once claimed the so called 'illegitimate' Elizabeth's throne as her own and was considered Alison Plowden's history of these cousin queens, Protestant Elizabeth I of England and Catholic Mary of Scots, is enthralling.
The backstory is that the teenaged Mary, when queen consort of France, had once claimed the so called 'illegitimate' Elizabeth's throne as her own and was considered the legitimate sovereign of England by many English Catholics. Mary became widowed young in France, returning to Scotland where she had not lived since her infancy. She was not embraced for long by her Protestant Scottish subjects or Lords who had other plans for Scotland's rulership than allowing a woman and Catholic reign.
After the suspicious murder of Mary's despised second husband, Elizabeth's cousin Darnley, abruptly followed by her remarriage to Darnley's suspected assassin, Bothwell, Mary was overthrown and imprisoned. After several failed attempts she escaped, fleeing south to England, seeking Elizabeth's support and protection.
Dishevelled, Mary was taken aback when, rather than being led to the anticipated hospitality of Elizabeth's court, she was taken into 'protective custody' by English officials. Mary expected Elizabeth to help her regain her throne, but wily Elizabeth characteristically prevaricated, instead holding Mary 'temporarily' captive. This was officially for Mary's protection while Elizabeth ordered inquiries into the conduct of Mary's rebels.
She also, however, ordered inquiries into Mary's alleged complicity in Darnley's murder plot, ostensibly so as to clear Mary's name in making way for her proposed reinstatement to Scottish rulership. Without direct royal heirs and seeing the younger, more beautiful and fecund Mary as a threat if released, the perpetually unmarried Elizabeth kept Mary confined in English castles and manor houses for almost nineteen years. After understandably conspiring towards her liberty, at whatever cost, desperate and isolated Mary was made a figurehead for numerous Catholic conspiracies to dethrone Elizabeth.
Deemed by Elizabeth's councillors too dangerous to live, Mary was entrapped. On somewhat trumped up charges, she was convicted for plotting Elizabeth's assassination.
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Executed, Mary became martyrised throughout Catholic Christendom. Mary's unprecedented royal execution was one official rationale behind Catholic Phillip II of Spain's failed invasion of England with his Armada. Elizabeth was branded a heretic by the pope, who sanctioned Phillip's Armanda, calling for Elizabeth's dethronement. With the English Channel's stormy weather on Elizabeth's side, the English fleet, under vice admiral Francis Drake, famously saw them off. Ultimately, everyone makes up their own mind over which was the heroine and which the villainess - there's a little of each in both queens.
Books by Alison Plowden - Wheelers Books
A fascinating and informative read. I really enjoyed this. It's an older book originally published in , I think? Plowden does a very good job of looking at Mary, and Elizabeth, focusing more on Mary , and how their interactions, and Mary's eventual execution spoilers! This is a relatively easy read - it's presented chronologically, and is pretty straightforward I really enjoyed this. This is a relatively easy read - it's presented chronologically, and is pretty straightforward history - just telling an interesting story.
The sources are not listed specifically by mention there are a lot of uncited quotes , but the sources at the back are pretty thorough - not by quote, but overall by chapter. You will feel sorry for both the queens At times is hard to read with the Latin and French words. The author's translation of old world English made me lose my place a few times. Mary queen of Scots with down right miserable and you want to admire Elizabeth.
Even to the end Mary was as stubborn as they come. It is true her only real duty was to produce an heir. Well considered and researched, informative read. Good easy read for non fiction. A very factual book, that did tell me things I did not know.